Green Infrastructure for a Climate Resilient Society – ICEM informs good practice in Vietnam

Vietnam – March 2020 

Bioengineering – or the use of vegetation to serve an engineering function – can constitute a low-cost option to supplement conventional infrastructure engineering design and increase resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change and extreme weather events.

In March 2020, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) released a Good Practice Brief on Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) for erosion control based on the findings and experience of the project Promoting Climate Resilient Rural Infrastructure in Vietnam, administered by the Asian Development Bank and implemented by ICEM – International Centre for Environmental Management, which demonstrated bioengineering techniques for road and riverbank slope protection.

Two demonstration sites were installed on riverbanks in Bac Kan and Son La provinces, and two other sites on roadside slopes in Son La and Thai Nguyen provinces. All demonstration sites were co-located with sub-projects of the large Sustainable Rural Infrastructure Development Project which is building rural infrastructure with conventional designs.

Two years after project completion there were no signs of erosion at either of the demonstration sites despite several serious floods and intensive rainfall events. The bioengineering measures also provided social, economic and ecosystem co-benefits, for example engaging local communities in construction, repairs and maintenance and providing fodder and firewood.

Key lessons learned through the implementation of the project and highlighted in the brief include:

  • Bioengineering should be considered at the earliest stage of project planning
  • High risk locations need to be identified as early as possible using proven vulnerability assessment and slope condition criteria
  • Specific slope problems need to be identified and assessed using low-cost geotechnical investigation procedures
  • Integration of hard and soft measures need to be considered to solve problems where bioengineering alone is insufficient
  • Active engagement of local […]

Study on Hanoi water pollution and drainage management approaching closure

Hanoi has grown rapidly into a modern, vibrant city. It is also envisioned to become a centre of culture, science, education, economics, tourism and international trade in the Asia-Pacific region. However, the development of infrastructure and services has lagged behind the growth of the population, hindering the realization of such vision. In particular, sustainable water resources management is a major challenge. Water pollution and urban flooding have arisen as persistent environmental problems in Hanoi for years, impairing the liveability of the city, deterring investors and compromising social – economic development.

Hanoi City Drainage Master Plan addresses these two issues but its implementation has not kept pace with the growth of the problems. Making Hanoi a water pollution and flood free city by 2050 will require enormous and sustained investment and institutional reform.

In an effort to support Hanoi City to implement its Drainage Master Plan and to build resilience and sustainability in the City’s water resources management, in 2019, the World Bank commissioned ICEM to undertake a study on water pollution control and drainage and wastewater management in Hanoi. The study aims at developing an effective and comprehensive management and investment program to tackle water pollution in key rivers – To Lich, Nhue, Day and Tich, and improve drainage and wastewater management in prioritized locations – Long Bien and Gia Lam districts.

Through a series of stakeholder consultations, field inspections, and data analysis, the study team assessed the baseline conditions of water pollution in the four rivers and urban flooding and wastewater management in the two districts, delineated the causes, and identified bottlenecks in addressing such causes. The technical challenges include rapid population growth and urbanization, dwindling water resources in rivers, infrastructure deficit (i.e. shortage of wastewater […]

Setting a precedent for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in Rayong Province, Thailand

Early 2020 saw the completion of the milestone Asian Development Bank funded Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of Rayong Province Development Master Plan & Revision of Thai Draft SEA Guidelines project. The project had two primary goals:

  1. To conduct a provincial wide SEA in Rayong Province, focusing on how the provincial development plan can be used to enhance provincial sustainability;
  2. To make recommendations and revisions to the Thai Draft SEA guidelines. The draft national guidelines were used and evaluated during the Rayong SEA, with the experience using them informing revisions to the draft guidelines

The Rayong SEA was undertaken at the request of Thailand’s National Economic and Social Development Committee (NESDC) in collaboration with Rayong Governor’s Office. The process highlighted the importance of SEAs in providing insights into provincial development planning by offering trade-off analyses and insights into relationships between economic, social and environmental goals.The lessons learned through the SEA process formed the basis for revising the national draft SEA guidelines, and the Rayong SEA will be a model for future assessments. Rayong Province lies within the Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC), an area encompassing the three eastern provinces of Chachoengsao, Chonburi, and Rayong. Since the mid-1980s the EEC has been promoted as a strategic industrial growth area. The new EEC Development Plan (2018) focuses on accelerating this growth through encouraging development of new industries, urban centres, expansion of ports and airports and new railway lines and highways. The end goal is to develop the region as an arterial hub for trade, investment and transportation. The Rayong SEA focused specifically on the current four-year Rayong Provincial Development Plan (RPDP), which has an implementation period through to 2021. The results of the Rayong SEA will inform the next five-year development planning […]

Driving socio-economic development forward in Nepal with resilient road networks – project completion

Nepal’s road networks are essential for boosting trade, connecting communities, improving access to services and economic opportunities, and facilitating national and regional integration. Improving the resilience of Nepal’s roads has therefore been prioritized by the Government of Nepal as a key driver for socio-economic development, a reason the World Bank supported the project Geohazard Risk Management and Resilient Road Asset Management in Nepal. From June 2018 to September 2019, ICEM supported the Government of Nepal through a multi-hazard risk assessment of over 700 km of national roads, and the subsequent development and prioritization of risk mitigation measures to ensure the resilience of these road corridors now and into the future.

Multi-hazard risk assessment and road network criticality assessment

For eight road corridors located mainly in the western region of Nepal, ICEM demonstrated an innovative multi-hazard risk assessment methodology, composed of four risk indices and combining a set of risk parameters such as rainfall, climate change, geology, seismic intensity, slope, drainage and historical landslide events, among others. These four risk indices were consolidated into one “multi-hazard” risk index and formed the basis for assembling a road risk profile per road corridor.

Risk indices developed as part of the multi-hazard risk assessment

Data for each of the parameters were analyzed using GIS and integrating satellite imagery, hydrological and hydraulic modelling results, and expert verification. The data was processed and categorized into five levels of risk ranging from very low to very high risk. For each of the parameters, risk scores were assigned at 1km intervals along all eight target roads, weighted and combined to develop the final risk index […]

Historic day for Myanmar’s water governance with publishing of first reference book on hydrogeology

Hilton Hotel, Naypyidaw, Myanmar – 14th November

On the 14 November, a huge milestone in sustainable water governance in Myanmar was reached with the launching of the Myanmar language edition of the first-ever published reference book on hydrogeology in the country, ‘Hydrogeology of the Dry Zone – Central Myanmar’. The book launch, funded by the Australian Water Partnership (AWP), took place in Myanmar’s capital of Naypyidaw.

The book is a straightforward resource, containing hydrogeological data and maps which provide information such as the location of artesian basins, arsenic and saltwater, and the depth of drilling required in different locations.

Although the Dry Zone is endowed with abundant surface water from the Ayeyarwady River, most flows happen in the wet season. Away from the Ayeyarwady River, the Dry Zone suffers from extreme water shortages. Approximately 75 per cent of the population in the Dry Zone rely on groundwater for drinking and domestic purposes. Villagers without tubewells travel great distances to collect water from shallow dugwells and polluted earth ponds, often leading to water-borne diseases. Accordingly, the provision of reliable, clean water supply to this area has been identified as a developmental priority.

The original English volume was a culmination of 30 years of Dr Len Drury’s work (Aqua Rock Konsultants) with assistance from the Groundwater Division, Irrigation and Water Utilization Management Department (IWUMD) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation (MOALI). The figures and maps were digitised by ICEM, and the text peer-reviewed by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI).

Dr Len Drury (right) looking over photos from the original study in Myanmar’s Central Dry Zone in 1980s

Although finished in 1988, the book was not published at the time […]

Planning layers to inform the design, location and environmental and social assessment of future river training works in the Ayeyarwady

The Ayeyarwady is Myanmar’s largest river system. Measuring the length of the country, it is both a crucial source of livelihoods and a vital commercial waterway. Along the river, many are dependent on the fertile riverbank fields and gardens, its fisheries, water for crop irrigation and for transportation. The river is also a source of culture with countless religious and historical monuments lining its banks and a historic channel that takes goods across the country.

The development of inland waterway transport (IWT) along this river is seen as integral to the economic development of Myanmar. To improve IWT along priority stretches of the river, and to design a cost-effective, environmentally and socially acceptable strategy for managing the full length of the navigation channel the Ayeyarwady Integrated River Basin Management Project (AIRBMP) was launched.

An Environmental and Social Assessment (ESA) of development of a 160 km stretch of river between Mandalay and Nyaung Oo has now been completed. The purpose of the development is to improve future navigation, allowing for 1,000 deadweight tonnage (DWT) barges to navigate up the river from Yangon to Mandalay during the dry season. Civil works may include closing subsidiary low-water channels with bunds and placement of flow-guiding structures such as groynes and embankments. Other activities include dredging, elimination of obstacles, bank and bed protection.

The objective of the ESA was to provide information to inform the design and detailed Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) of future navigation enhancement interventions for this area, as such interventions may cause adverse environmental and social impacts from changes to aquatic and riparian habitats in response to changes in river morphology, flow, depth, sediment flux, water quality and turbidity. Transport and disposal of dredged materials may also […]

By |2020-01-10T15:21:38+07:00January 7th, 2019|News, Uncategorized|0 Comments

Modulators for training course on disaster risk reduction for urban planners in the ASEAN region

The ASEAN training course on disaster risk management for urban planning practitioners was developed by a team of international experts in urban planning and disaster risk management from ICEM, with input from ASEAN-based authorities. The technical experts that formed part of the project team that designed and wrote the course are:

  • Disaster risk management specialist, Kenneth Westgate: Ken’s long career in addressing and reducing disaster risk has included work with numerous international organisations across the globe. He has worked extensively in Africa and Asia, including in Uganda, Sudan, Tanzania, Kenya, Geneva, Egypt, the Balkan States, Cambodia and Timor Leste. Ken has served as Director at the Disaster Management Centre at Cranfield University in the UK and regional adviser for Africa in Disaster Risk Reduction for the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Throughout his career, he has been involved in the training of disaster management specialist. His work at Cranfield culminated in the establishment of the first Masters Degree in Development and Disaster Management, among others. He is currently also supporting the Yemen Red Crescent Society in the development of their disaster management strategy.
  • Urban planner, Mike Sharrocks: Mike has over 35 years’ project experience in sustainable tourism strategies, urban planning and urban design work, sustainable land management, urban and rural regeneration strategies, infrastructure and land use development, master plans and development frameworks. He has worked on numerous projects worldwide in more than 30 countries, either as a team leader or as a team member, in North America, Europe, the Middle East, South and South East Asia, the Far East and the South Pacific, for various international organisations and funders.
  • Disaster and climate risk specialist, Ian Wilderspin: Ian has over 25 years of diverse experience […]
By |2020-01-10T15:21:39+07:00September 17th, 2018|Uncategorized|2 Comments

Mission to Indonesia takes project team step closer to understanding climate change risk to critical infrastructure in region

Jakarta, Indonesia – July, 2018

To meet crucial development, inclusion and environmental goals in low-income countries and emerging markets, investment in large infrastructure is critical. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) estimated in 2017 that the developing Asia needed to invest around $26 trillion from 2016 to 2030 ($1.7 trillion annually) in transport, power, telecommunications and water and sanitation infrastructure to maintain current levels of growth. 

To increase knowledge on the risks of climate change to critical infrastructure in South and Southeast Asia, and to build a better understanding of the actions and innovations necessary to build critical infrastructure resilient to climate change, the ADB has commissioned TA 9191: Building Climate Change Resilience in Asia’s Critical Infrastructure. The project is being carried out by a joint venture between ICEM – International Centre for Environmental Management, the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), and Philkoei International. The project supports ADB’s effort to scale-up climate-resilient investments in its developing member countries (DMCs).

The project team recently undertook its first consultation mission to Indonesia, one of the project’s three pilot countries, to engage relevant Indonesian government agencies and to refine the scope of work in the country.

Transport infrastructure in Jakarta, Indonesia

The team met with various government agencies, institutes and organizations to secure their involvement, including the Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS), Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR), Ministry of Public Works and Housing (MPWH), Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG), Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MFF) and National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB).

While the project was introduced to […]

Myanmar Healthy Rivers Initiative project reports and publications available

Yangon, Myanmar –  August 31, 2018: Myanmar Healthy Rivers Initiative project reports and publications available

Myanmar’s rivers are a key national resource, providing irrigation, hydropower, water supplies for cities and industries, and navigation and transport routes. They are also important ecosystems, supporting productive fisheries both inland and in the deltas, and underpinning the livelihoods of Myanmar communities. As Myanmar develops, aquatic ecosystems are under pressure from changes to the river systems, necessary to foster economic growth, but impacting on the ecosystem services and products provided by rivers.

The Myanmar Healthy Rivers Initiative (MHRI) aimed to develop and test a river health framework which allows government and communities to monitor the status of the riverine ecosystem services they value, and provides evidence for informed, integrated water resource management (IWRM) planning. The project focused on Myanmar’s two iconic rivers; the Ayeyarwady, and the Thanlwin.

The project was recently completed, and all reports and publications produced are now available to view and download. Among others, these include river basin health report cards, river health monitoring frameworks, community river health surveys and a community river health monitoring manual. A characterization of the hydro-ecological zones of the Ayeyarwady River basin, and state of knowledge reports for both basins are also included.

View and download all project publications

Strengthening climate resilience in Bac Kan city

Bac Kan, Vietnam –  July, 2018: Strengthening climate resilience in Bac Kan city

Located in the northern mountainous area of Vietnam, Bac Kan Province is increasingly affected by extreme weather events, aggravated by the impacts of climate change. Droughts, flashfloods, and landslides frequently cause severe damage to agricultural production and livestock, harming the livelihoods of local people in the province.

To reduce the impacts of climate change and strengthen local capacity to adapt to these challenges, the local government developed a Climate Action Plan with proposed projects to safeguard critical infrastructure. To support these efforts, the Climate and Natural Disasters Resilience project in Bac Kan province was launched.

This July the project team, consisting of experts from ICEM and AREP, visited Bac Kan City to gather information of the challenges that the city is facing as well as proposed responses. First, the team met with the local People’s Committee to clarify key concerns regarding a proposed project to protect areas of the city against flooding and bank erosion of the Cau River. The proposed project includes the construction of new embankments, dredging along this area, and the construction of two weirs. ICEM would review these plans and assess their effectiveness towards achieving their intended goals.

After the meeting, the team visited sites relevant to the project such as the city’s main drainage outflow and sluice gate to the Cau River, areas where landslides occurred during previous storms, upstream drainage channels, existing embankments, and proposed embankment sites. The team took photos and notes on each of the sites to later add to their recommendations on the city’s proposal. The People’s Committee accompanied the project team to provide additional information on each of these sites.

Framework to assess river health in Myanmar presented

Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar –  March 9, 2018: Framework to assess river health in Myanmar presented

As Myanmar develops, pressure on the country’s rivers is increasing. With limited data available to inform management decisions, sustainable development of these key national resources is challenging. In response, the Myanmar Healthy Rivers Initiative (MHRI) was launched; an applied research project designed to help government and communities explore different techniques to monitor river health and inform sustainable management of the rivers and the ecosystem services they supply.

Launched in 2015, the project is managed by the International Centre for Environmental Management (ICEM) with the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and local partners Ecosystem Conservation and Community Development Initiative (ECCDI) and Myanmar Institute for Integrated Development (MIID). The project team work with the Ministry of Natural Resources Environment and Conservation (MONREC) and consulted a wide range of stakeholders from national to community level. Support and funding is provided by the WLE Greater Mekong Program and the Australian Government.

This March, final river health monitoring indicators, tools and results were presented to core government partners at the project’s final workshop. The event was also an opportunity to explore next steps and considerations for implementation and up-scaling of the Myanmar River Health Framework, a resource kit which includes characterisation of the main users, uses and values of river systems; a set of simple environmental indicators specifically designed to monitor changes and trends in these uses; a set of assessment tools and approaches; and guidelines on how to implement and analyse river health monitoring and reporting.

Community representatives presenting results of river health event calendars at the MHRI final workshop.

The framework was developed with a range of […]

Notice of public consultation for draft ESIA/ESMP of Sub-Project 1 of the AIRBMP

The Directorate of Water Resources and Improvement of River Systems (DWIR) is considering a combination of river training structures and dredging to improve year-round and safe accessibility to the port of Mandalay. ICEM has been engaged to prepare the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) and Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) for Subproject 1.

The project is part of the World Bank funded Ayeyarwady Integrated River Basin Management Project (AIRBMP), which aims at finding and implementing technical and operational schemes for making improvements of the navigability of the Ayeyarwady River Basin. The goal is “to improve inland water transport in priority stretches of the Ayeyarwady River and design a cost-effective and environmentally and socially acceptable strategy for managing the full length of the navigation channel”.

Public consultation for the draft ESIA and ESMP for Subproject 1 will take place on Thursday, 18 January at the Triumph Hotel in Mandalay at 08:45 am.

The objectives of the public consultation for the draft ESIA/ESMP for Subproject 1 are to:

  • Present an overview of Component 3 of the AIRBMP and Subproject 1;
  • Outline the technical solutions and detailed designs for Subproject 1 based on the results of modeling and simulations;
  • Review the key findings of the draft ESIA/ESMP of Subproject 1;
  • Discuss stakeholder issues and opportunities to be included in the final ESIA/ESMP for Subproject 1; and
  • Outline next steps in relation to the implementation of the Draft ESIA/ESMP and Subproject 1.

The overall objectives of Subproject 1 are to achieve a Least Available Depth (LAD) of 2.0 m for a design of 1,000 dead weight tonne. The river training works and dredging will allow vessels to pass more heavily loaded during dry season, increasing the efficiency of passenger and […]

Public invited to discuss planned Ayeyarwady River improvements

The Directorate of Water Resources and Improvement of River Systems (DWIR) is considering a combination of river training structures and dredging to improve year-round and safe accessibility to the port of Mandalay. ICEM has been engaged to prepare the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) and Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) for Subproject 1.

The draft scoping reports for the ESIA and ESMP for Subproject 1 are now available for public comment. To meet the requirements of the Myanmar EIA procedures (2015) and World Bank safeguard policies a Public Consultation meeting will be conducted on Friday 4th August, 2017 in Mandalay to review the Draft Scoping Report. The scoping reports are part of component three of the Myanmar Ayeyarwady Integrated River Basin Management (AIRBM) project. Managed by DWIR with support from the World Bank, the AIRBM project aims to develop and enhance navigation for the full navigable length of the river from Mandalay to Yangon. Navigation is proposed to be enhanced by river training by constructing groynes, guide bunds etc. in the river channel, bank protection works, dredging and installation of navigation aids such as signage, buoys and lighting.

The ESIA will assess the baseline and potential impacts of river improvement works and lead to the preparation of an ESMP and a monitoring framework for the developments. This will ensure that measures are put in place to avoid and mitigate impacts and enhance the sub-project benefits. The environmental and social impacts of sub-project 1 will need to be considered during both the construction and operational phases.

In compliance with the Myanmar EIA procedures (2015) and World […]

Myanmar hydropower SEA draft Baseline Assessment Report now available for public comment

Yangon, Myanmar –  June 8, 2017: Myanmar hydropower SEA draft Baseline Assessment Report now available for public comment

*UPDATE: The deadline for public review has been extended to 20 July 2017

The draft Baseline Assessment Report for the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the Hydropower Sector in Myanmar is now available for public review. The document (presented in eight separate chapters) will be available from today (8 June) until 22 June 2017. Following this review period, the baseline chapters will undergo a final round of revisions and comments will be included in the annex. The release of the draft chapters follows on a series of national, basin and local level stakeholder consultations, during which sustainability principles and key themes were refined in order to identify the key strategic environmental and social issues for each river basin.

The SEA comprises three main phases:

  • Scoping and baseline assessment
  • Impact assessment and sustainability analysis
  • Mitigation and recommendations

The scoping and baseline assessment phase led to the preparation of three volumes:
1. Stakeholder Engagement Plan
2. Regional River Basin Consultations – Key Findings
3. Baseline Assessment Report

The draft Baseline Assessment Report, which is now available for review, consists of the following chapters:

Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Hydropower
Chapter 3: Geomorphology and sediment transport
Chapter 4: Biodiversity
Chapter 5: Aquatic ecology and fisheries
Chapter 6: Economic development and land use
Chapter 7: Social and livelihoods
Chapter 8: Conflict

Download the draft Baseline Assessment Report chapters Send your comments to Rory Hunter at rory.hunter@icem.com.au For more information, visit the SEA of the Hydropower Sector in Myanmar project page Download the Stakeholder Engagement Plan Report Download the Regional River Basin Consultations Report

[…]

Call for submissions – community-based climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction practices in Cambodia

The Department of Climate Change (DCC) of the General Secretariat of the National Council for Sustainable Development is requesting submissions of descriptions of credible climate change adaptation and disaster risk practices under two themes:

  1. Indigenous/traditional practices for climate change adaptation and DRR; and
  2. Practices that promote climate resilience and empowerment of women, children and youth.

The contribution will enhance and share knowledge on approaches to climate resilience appropriate to Cambodia. Practices then can be up-scaled to widely apply across Cambodia to reduce the impacts of climate change.

Up to 15 of the best documented practices will be shared at a national ‘Conference on Community Based Climate Change Response Practices in Cambodia’, to be held on 29-30 November 2016. They will also be published as part of a compendium of practices for distribution at national and international level.

The call is open to Cambodia-based non-government organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations (CBOs), university researchers, students, local communities and the private sector. Submissions can be either in Khmer or in English.

This forms part of the ADB project Mainstreaming Climate Resilience into Development Planning. It aims to strengthen Strategic Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR) coordination, technical support, and capacity of national and provincial policymakers, technical staff and civil society organizations to mainstream climate resilience into development planning. Two other outputs of the project include the development of a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) and detailed feasibility studies for selected National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) projects, and the development and dissemination of climate change adaptation knowledge products.

The deadline for submissions is 5pm (Cambodia time) on Wednesday, 2 November 2016.

For more information, please phone DCC at 012 617 092 and 077 535 392 or e-mail them at adbspcrta8179@gmail.com

For more imformatiom, refer to the full announcement […]

Jeremy Carew-Reid

ICEM’s Director, Dr Carew-Reid, has more than 35 years experience working in over 30 countries, including extensive experience in Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR.

ICEM’s Director General, Dr Carew-Reid, has more than 35 years experience working in over 30 countries, including extensive experience in the Mekong region. He has a BSc Honours in freshwater ecology and a PhD in Environmental Impact Assessment. He specializes in integrated environmental assessments and in climate change vulnerability assessment and adaptation. Also, he has led many foundational biodiversity and climate change studies and assessments in the Mekong region.

Since 2000, Dr Carew-Reid has been Team Leader in more than 35 ICEM projects in Asia. He established ICEM’s regional and national offices with international and national staff. Earlier, Dr Carew-Reid was the Director of IUCN’s Global Conservation Services, Director of SPREP, the Secretariat for the Pacific Region Environment Program, and IUCN Country Representative in Nepal. He has acted as Chief Technical Advisor to the Nepal National Planning Commission and the Ministry of Planning and Investment in Vietnam.

Dr Carew-Reid was Team Leader of the Strategic Environmental Assessment of hydropower development on the mainstream Mekong River, which received an international award for excellence from IAIA. He was also Team Leader of the Urban Resilience in Mekong Towns Project, which received the Asia Urban Resilience Award from the UN and USAID for superior work in applying forward thinking innovation to urban resilience. He was Team Leader of the seminal study of climate change impacts on natural and agricultural systems in the Mekong region as part of the USAID-supported Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change (ARCC) project which is cited in the latest reports from the International Panel on Climate Change. Dr Carew-Reid was Climate Change Specialist […]

By |2020-01-10T15:21:53+07:00March 20th, 2012|Uncategorized|0 Comments