Existing and planned transport infrastructure in HCMC will be at risk from the effects of climate change.
The HCMC study has shown that, in 2050, with climate change, all categories of roads will be affected by extreme flooding, including axis and ring roads, highways and national and provincial roads to a significant amount. The planned flood control project will protect axis roads and ring roads to some extent but will not be effective in protecting many highways and national and provincial roads. Whilst flooding of the roads has the potential to damage roads, especially embankments and culverts that prevent the cross flows of water (especially if the culverts are not sized correctly), flooding may merely be disruptive to traffic for the duration of the flood and during clean up. Road intersections and nodal points will also be affected which has the potential to exacerbate disruptions to traffic flow and affect existing high congestion.
Railways, monorails and metro tracks are expected to be in place by 2050, increasing the availability of public transport options. The share of public transport usage is expected to increase as such options become available. All planned public transport infrastructure will be affected by flooding with sections of each type of system lying in areas affected by extreme flood events. The design of these systems will take into account flooding to minimise direct effects, and so transport disruption will be the main issue. However, rail tracks on embankments that do not have adequate cross drainage may also be at risk of structural damage.
The existing and future airports are located on higher ground and will not be flooded but access to them would be through flooded roads, with consequent potential disruption for passengers, services and supplies.
Ports and navigation channels are located on the river banks and so will be affected directly by extreme flooding from rainfall, sea level rise and storm surge. The issues for the upgrading and design of new port facilities should take into account increases in the tidal range, to ensure adequate height of wharves and protection of transport and storage facilities on the land-based areas. Navigation channels may require more frequent dredging if sedimentation from the watershed and collapse of river banks is induced by climate change events.